Why You Should Be Worried About JUULs on Campus

Because they’re everywhere.

29.8% of college students surveyed say they want their schools to do something about it.

For them, the biggest problem is they’re being used in places where they’re not supposed to smoke.

Of those surveyed, 55% said they’ve seen classmates vape during a lecture and 50.1% saw peers vaping in the school library.

When a looming cloud of vapor trails a passerby and assaults your face, it’s likely coming from a USB smoking device known as a JUUL.

That’s because JUUL owns nearly 75% of the e-cigarette market share.

30.4% of college students surveyed also say they own an e-cigarette in one form or another.

So addictive are their fruity flavors they’re no longer sold in brick-and-mortar stores to curb ‘epidemic’ levels of teen vaping.

What Makes JUULs So Special?

image of a JUUL kit, a JUUL, 4 JUUL pods and the JUUL charger on a wooden table

They’re marketed as a healthier alternative to cigarettes.

They’re also inconspicuously small, perfectly pocket-sized so you can bring them anywhere.

They also taste good.

Ever wanted to smoke in your room but was worried about your housemates and the thought of leaving your house was too much of a hassle?

You can do that now, and no one would be the wiser.

The convenience in size and liberal use is why JUULs have taken off, especially among young adults.

How prevalent is it on college campuses?

behind the back photo of a man on campus leaving a trail of smoke

The alarming rise in the use of e-cigarettes prompted Penn State University to enforce a policy that prevents the purchase of tobacco products and smoking accessories with their student payment card.

As of September 2018, 65 college campuses in Canada have enacted
policies towards a 100% smoke-free campus.

JUUL use is prevalent wherever establishments have conventionally forbidden smoking.

Vaping circumvents dorm policies that haven’t been quick to stretch the definition of smoking to include vaping. Even still, smoking these JUULs inside dorm rooms won’t produce the noxious smell that cigarettes do and it won’t trigger fire alarms.

The local college bars and clubs stand no chance. JUUL users just go the washroom and have a few hits, or smoke it among the crowd.

Plus no one will have qualms about vaping inside a house party. It’ll likely be encouraged if you let the host have a hit.

There’s simply no trailing evidence of smoking use after it’s used, which is what previously irritated people.

Less harm, less foul, as it’s believed.

What are the health risks associated with JUULs?


E-cigarettes merely transmuted the form of smoke to vapor, while retaining the addictive property of a cigarette: nicotine.

Ten hits are equivalent to a single cigarette in nicotine content. Overall, the amount of nicotine in a single JUUL pod is equal to a pack of cigarettes; that is, 20 cigarettes.

Early JUUL users often say that one hit is enough to make you feel an immediate high given how quickly it enters your bloodstream.

JUUL acknowledges that nicotine is highly addictive, but where they appear to differ from cigarettes are in its cancer-causing agents.

According to their site, they assert: ‘these alternatives contain nicotine, which has not been shown to cause cancer but can create dependency.’

We know, however, that combustible cigarettes are without a doubt cancer-causing. They contain 7,000 chemicals, where at least 70 of which cause cancer. In this form, it’s infinitely less healthy.

For the collegian, the studied health hazards of nicotine escape them in moderate doses as there is more evidence of it causing damage to people in earlier stages of life.

But addiction is real.

Listed as the third most addictive chemical behind heroin and cocaine, nicotine can produce dependence that’s extremely difficult to kick.

So yes, habitual use of JUULs is bad for you.

Why It Matters to Non-JUUL Users on Campus

Because of second-hand exposure to nicotine.

No one enjoys a plume of smoke in their face that they’re not the cause of. No one also solicits nicotine highs they didn’t ask for.

Whether you’re studying in the library, sitting in a lecture, enjoying a drink at the bar, or walking to class, the possibility of inhaling second-hand nicotine from JUUL users is higher than in previous years given the explosive number of users.

With the cult-like following that JUUL has, the number of smokers will among young adults will only increase.

Previously non-smokers could escape from smokers by being where they are not: indoors. Regrettably, there hasn’t been much in the effect of policing indoor smoking of e-cigarettes simply because it’s too hard to.

And no fire alarms to blow the whistle.

*Based on survey data collected from 2,160 college students aged 18-24 years located in US & Canada


Does a Marketing Degree Make You A Better Marketer?

Typically, no.

That’s because marketing is an applied practice, involving lots of tinkering and trial and error, yet common marketing courses are largely theoretical without real world application.

Take a look at some typical marketing courses:

  • Consumer Behavior
  • Marketing Research
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Marketing Management
  • Marketing Metrics
  • Digital Media Marketing

For a job in marketing, you will never need to have generalized knowledge on consumer behavior. Instead, you need to know niche-specific behavior particular to the cohort you’re marketing to.

For most of these courses, the second problem is in the evaluation.

What should be your learning outcome and how should your grade be assessed if you took the course, say, marketing strategy? Should the top marks be given to the student who wrote the most detailed and comprehensive marketing plan?

That could be a useful measure… if your grade was assessed on how well you can articulate a plan.

A more reliable and accurate approach, though cutthroat, would simply be if the strategy works. Because that’s all that matters.  

Unfortunately, that can’t be accurately assessed without applying your strategy in the real-world, not in a controlled, sterile simulation.

Without knowledge gleaned from iterative repeated testing, a strategy is nothing but a collection of ideas collectively worth nil.

At the end of the day, it’s impossible to know if your marketing plan will ultimately fail or succeed unless it’s applied.

Otherwise, you’re operating in a field of assumptions typically based on incomplete data.

Marketing Classes Learning Outcomes

man making a presentation on a big screen to a dimly lit audience

If you’re evaluated on how well you articulate and present your plan, then your first order learning is on how to articulate and present a marketing strategy well, not on marketing strategy per se. There’s a difference.

Marketing professors’ evaluations are independent of real world feedback. So they evaluate on what they can control and assess: your writing and presentation skills.

Rather than learning how to deliver to your niche audience effectively, you’ve learned how to deliver to those who assess your grade instead.

In fact, after your course, you still wouldn’t know how your niche consumers would respond to your marketing strategy because you’ve never applied it towards them.

If your future boss gave your immaculate marketing plan the go-ahead and after implementing it, it failed, it would be deemed a bad plan because it missed the mark, never mind how well it was articulated.

What a Marketing Role Looks Like

photo of a woman presenting a diagram on a laptop

Marketing is all about testing and iterating.

Under no circumstances do simulated practice constitute as testing since real-world variables aren’t present under these controlled conditions.

How do you test or iterate if it’s not part of the curriculum?

Marketing is more than merely writing compelling copy. Decisions are made mostly on data collected from testing. Not merely data drawn from Google, Wikipedia or the news, but from internally collected data; that is, hard numbers.

Aggregate data provides the most no-nonsense information for marketers to initiate campaigns off of. Juggling excel sheets and communicating in excel functions are marketers day-to-day.

It’s the age of ‘Big Data’ where all facets of business are informed by data, especially marketing. It’s not all flowery creatives for a marketer; it’s very much a data-driven industry.

This is what separates a practitioner from a student asked to make informed assumptions about how to proceed with a marketing strategy.

What to Look For in Marketing Classes

Man seated cross-legged peering at iPad with graphs and charts on the screen.

Make sure your marketing curriculum preps you with practical skills that marketers should have:

  • Copywriting – content creation
  • SEO – Search Engine Optimization
  • SEM – Search Engine Marketing
  • Google Adwords
  • Facebook Ads
  • Data Analytics
  • Formulating winning marketing strategies that gets tested in the real world

The point here is that you don’t need to go to school for marketing to do well in marketing. They do, however, offer internships that place you right in the heat of a marketing role which would accelerate your learning far more than the courses you take in school.

Another option are MBAs in marketing as these programs tend lean towards a more robust application of knowledge.

What Do Marketing Professionals Look Like?

Most of the big tech names’ marketing directors and VPs of marketing never went to school for marketing.


Uber – Rebecca Messina (Global Chief Marketing Officer) – Bachelor of Arts, Spanish, Diplomacy and Foreign Affairs

AirBnB – George Seeley (Global Marketing Director) – Bachelor of Science (BSc), Architecture, Town Planning and Construction Management

Amazon – Neil Lindsay (VP, Prime and Marketing) – B.A. Applied Science

Facebook – Carolyn Everson (VP of Marketing) – Liberal Arts and Communications

Microsoft – Chris Capossela (VP of Marketing) – Computer Science and Economics

Apple – Philip Schiller (Senior Vice President of Worldwide Product Marketing) – Bachelor of Science in Molecular Biology

This is obviously an incomplete picture. Most of these individuals landed a job in marketing to begin and through their years of experience built themselves up to the position they’re in now.

57.5% of College Graduates Don’t Work in Their Field of Study

Five years ago, it was only 27% according to a study by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. 

Given the short time for such a drastic shift to occur, that’s a startling jump. Should this be concerning?

It doesn’t seem to be for the majority of recent college graduates. When asked if they would pursue a different degree if they could repeat their undergrad, 76.6% of the surveyed said they wouldn’t.

This suggests for most college graduates the skills, knowledge, and experience they gained in college serves well enough to participate in the job market, though not necessarily a job related to their field of study.

Strangely, they’re OK with this.

So why do they detour from their degree?

The answer isn’t obvious.

But with the job market as competitive as it is, coupled with looming student loans, being picky out the gates isn’t a financially sound plan in the short-term. It’s common, then, for college graduates to settle into an industry unrelated to their field of study.

How about the other 23.4% who said they would change degrees?

Maybe they were misled, or they made poor choices, or the job market has changed. In any event, when more than half don’t end up working in a field related to their degree after graduating college, and nearly a quarter of them wish they had pursued a different undergraduate degree, this suggests their degree just isn’t cutting it.

One respondent said, “if you have a social science degree like [me], it’s near impossible to get a job right out of college. Most employers want people with master’s degrees or bachelor’s with 2-5 years of work experience. And that’s for entry-level positions in a relevant field … I just wish someone would have told me I needed a Masters degree to pursue anything in the field.”

Who or what is to blame?

Could it be the job opportunities, or lack thereof, in the field related to their study, the false promises of open opportunities from their former professors, or themselves for not forecasting the market before beginning their degree?

For some, exiting the college bubble forces many to sober up and see the reality of how expensive it is to live. What they’re able to earn with the degree they graduated with just isn’t cutting it.

That’s when the decision to go back to school to pursue a technical skill or a graduate program would help them appear more desirable for employers.

Yet, more funds placed into additional schooling could’ve been avoided from the beginning if the academic direction wasn’t chosen initially.

What to make of all this?

When 1 in 4 college graduates regret the degree they went to school for, it’s a problem.

It’s not easy to look back at four years of life and to think it was all for naught. Not to mention the tens of thousands of dollars painfully pulled out of pocket in pursuit of a degree that didn’t see a return in investment when it mattered most. 

According to a survey by Emolument, by and far, respondents regretted a degree in psychology the most with only 33% saying it was worth it. Fine arts, history, geography, politics and marketing trailed behind at 53% to 54%.

A degree is only worth its weight if it makes the recipient attractive to potential employers in the field they were intended for when it’s all said and done. If it can’t even do this, a job unrelated to the degree is plan b. 


If you’re a college graduate, spare a moment and take our survey below (3 minutes, I promise!). 

Step-by-Step Guide on How to Become a Pharmacist, Lawyer, Nurse, Doctor, and More…

You have a career in mind, but you don’t know what to expect or how to get there.

We gathered all the relevant information you need to give you the low down on what’s needed to chase after any one of the professions below:

1. Lawyer
2. Doctor
3. Accountant
4. Nurse
5. Dentist
6. Optometrist
7. Pharmacist
8. Electrical Engineer
9. Mechanical Engineer
10. Veterinarian

All of these professions require you to pass an exam at one point or another. Here’s what you need to know for each one.

5 Steps on how to become a lawyer

Image of a Smiling Lawyer

GPA Minimum 3.3
Undergrad Major Any
Years in School 7
Avg LSAT Score ~150

Step 1: Complete a bachelor’s degree program

Any major you study in your undergrad will do. People have entered law school with degrees in English, music, engineering. The university where you complete your undergrad does not mean you have to attain your law degree from there.

Step 2: Pass the LSAT

The LSAT stands for Law School Admission Test. Your score on this test will largely determine how well you fare when being admitted to law schools. You can write the test multiple times, but be sure with the law school how they tackle multiple testings. Some average, some take the highest mark.

Step 3: Apply for law schools

The conventional wisdom is to be mindful of where you want to practice law because law schools tend to have a curriculum that is regionally influenced. You can expect special programs uniquely offered from various law schools.

Step 4: Earn a JD degree

You need a JD degree to practice law in the US, and is only offered by ABA-accredited laws schools. It takes three years to complete. Students begin seeking jobs in the field in the first summer to gain legal experience.

Step 5: Pass the bar exam

This is a two-day affair, lasting 7 hours each day. Pass both exams and you get to practice law.

Learn More – Passing the LSAT Tips

7 Steps on how to become a doctor

Image of a Smiliing African-American Doctor Holding A Tablet

GPA Minimum 3.7
Undergrad Major Any
Years in School 8
Avg MCAT Score ~510 – 511

Step 1: Complete an undergraduate degree

It’d be to your benefit to earn your bachelor’s degree from an accredited university with a major in the sciences, as these are preferred by medical schools. However, you can earn your degree from any major, so long as you take the pre-requisite courses to get into medical school.

Step 2: Pass the MCAT exam

MCAT stands for Medical College Admission Test. Applicants tend to study for 4-6 months before taking the test and have GPA in the 3.7 to 4.0 range before applying.

Step 3: Apply to medical school

This isn’t as simple as handing in an application, you also have to go through an interview to demonstrate your character traits. This means a measure of your maturity, compassion and interpersonal skills.

Step 4: Pass parts I & II of the USMLE

What you score in your United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) is taken into account to determine your consideration for residency programs. Part I is typically taken after your second year of medical school to test your foundational sciences. Part II of the USMLE tests your clinical knowledge and is commonly taken in the fourth year.

Step 5: Match with residency

Near the end of your time in medical school, you’ll have to start applying for residency programs. Residency is oftentimes a three-year program where you’re supervised under a mentoring system that allows you to experience different specialty fields in a clinic.

Step 6: Pass part III of the USMLE & finish residency

Before you take part III of the USMLE, you have to have obtained an MD degree and have passed part I and II. Passing part III earns you a license as a practicing physician.

Step 7: Apply for jobs

All those grueling years in school and residency, the common struggles of finding a job is merely in finding the right fit. Cast a wide net and see what’s most appropriate for you with the plentiful options you have.

5 Steps on how to become an accountant

Image of a Happy Cute Female Accountant Doing Taxes

GPA Minimum 2.0
Undergrad Major Any
Years in School 4
CPA Passing Score ~150

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree

Pick and choose any degree you want to pursue, but a bachelor in business is useful because it can best prepare you for the CPA exam.

Step 2: Decide between accountant and CPA

All CPAs are accountants, but not all accountants are CPAs. CPAs have greater access to more industries because of more experience, education and knowledge.

Step 3: Pass the Uniform CPA exam

This is a very hard exam involving four parts. It’s offered on the first two months of every quarter.

Step 4: Apply for jobs

You will need 12 months of general accounting experience and 500 hours of attest experience to be licensed as a CPA.

Step 5: Acquire CPA license

This is the highest standard of competence for accountants. This will help you stand out and earn more as an accountant.

4 Steps on how to become a registered nurse

Image of a Female and African-American Nurse Looking at a Clipboard

GPA Minimum 3.0
Undergrad Major Nursing
Years in School 4
Avg NCLEX Score 0.00

Step 1: Complete a nursing bachelor program

Nurses have many specialties, so it’s worthwhile it think about which work environment you wish to work in as a future nurse.

Step 2: Pass the NCLEX-RN exam

Taking the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) means you have to answer the minimum number of questions (75) given a maximum time of 6 hours to complete.

Step 3: Get a state license

These license procedures differ from state to state, but every state requires you to have one in order to practice as a nurse.

Step 3: Apply for jobs

Find a suitable work environment. Some locations have better nursing opportunities than others.

5 Steps on how to become a dentistImage of Smiling Dentist Male

GPA Minimum 3.7
Undergrad Major Any
Years in School 8
Avg DAT Score ~19.9

Step 1: Complete a bachelor’s degree

Get your bachelor’s in any any major, so long as take prerequisite courses. Most dental schools require these prerequisite courses to be completed with at least a C grade.

Step 2: Score well on the DAT

The DAT stands for Dental Aptitude Test. It’s an online exam taken 15 months before beginning dental school.

Step 3: Complete a doctoral degree

Dental school typically lasts four years. What you get out of it depends on which degree you’re pursuing: Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD).

Step 4: Pass national and state licensing exam

To be a practicing dentist, you need a state license. You will need to pass a 2-part written exam offered by the National Board Dental Examinations in order to get one.

Step 5: Apply for jobs

Private practice or corporate dental office? This is entirely your preference.

5 Steps on how to become an optometrist

Image of a Male Optometrist inspecting the eyes of a female patient

GPA Minimum 3.5
Undergrad Major Bio, chem or physio
Years in School 8
Avg OAT Score ~300

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree

The recommended degree is one that places has greater focus on pre-med or in biological sciences. You will need to take prerequisite courses.

Step 2: Pass the OAT

This is the Optometry Admission Test, which is essentially the gateway to optometry school. It’s scored based on the number of correct answers, so make guesses all you want, if you have to.

Step 3: Complete a doctoral degree

A doctoral degree in optometry is typically four years.

Step 4: Pass the NBEO

You will need to pass all sections of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry (NBEO)

Step 5: Get a state license

Find a license where you want to reside and practice. Some states will want you to take an clinical additional exam, typically on law.

6 Steps on how to become a pharmacist

Image of a Smiling Female Pharmacist with her Arms Crossed

GPA Minimum 3.6
Undergrad Major Bio, chem or physio
Years in School 8
Avg PCAT Score 400

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree

A degree that gives you a strong background in the sciences is recommended, but pharmacy schools have different admission requirements, so contact them first.

Step 2: Pass the PCAT

The Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) is a four and a half test that pharmacy schools can use to evaluate your candidacy for their program. Keep in mind, pharmacy schools have their own standards for acceptable scores.

Step 3: Complete pharmacy doctoral program

This is a four year program, whereupon the fourth year of a pharmacy program gives you hands-on experience in a clinical setting.

Step 4: Pass the NAPLEX and MPJE exam

Passing the North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam (NAPLEX) and the Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam (MPJE) allows you practice and transfer your license to another state.

Step 5: Match with residency

Residency is a two-year endeavor that has two phases: postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and post graduate year 2(PGY2). These are undertaken to learn more about a chosen specialty.

Step 6: Get a state license

All states require pharmacists in order to practice. Getting a state license requires passing two license examinations.

Step 7: Apply for jobs

Hospitals, pharmaceutical industries, retail chains, or government agencies. The choices are many.

6 Steps on how to become an electrical  engineer

Image of Two Electrical Engineers Bent Over Looking at a Laptop

GPA Minimum 2.7
Undergrad Major Electrical Engineering
Years in School 4
FE Passing Score 60% – 70%

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering

Pretty straightforward, just make sure the degree is an ABET-accredited engineering program.

Step 2: Pass the FE exam

You need a license to offer your engineering services to the public. The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam typically requires a passing score of 60% – 70%.

Step 3: Apply for jobs

Landing a job as an electrical engineer is means dishing out as resumes to as many firms as possible.

Step 4: Acquire 4 years of work experience

Get four years of work experience to qualify to take the Principles and Practice of Engineering (PE) exam.

Step 5: Pass the PE exam

This is an 8-hour exam that, if passed, lets you obtain a license from your state’s licensing board.

Step 6: Get a PE state license

This is optional, but getting a PE state license gives you the stamp of approval that speaks to your experience, knowledge and education.

5 Steps on how to become a mechanical engineer

Two Asian Male Mechanical Engineers Inspecting Machinery

GPA Minimum 2.7
Undergrad Major Mechanical Engineering
Years in School 4
FE Passing Score 60% – 70%

Step 1: Earn a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering

Make sure the school’s mechanical engineering program is ABET-accredited.

Step 2: Pass the FE exam

Like an electrical engineer, you need to pass the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam in order to serve the general public.

Step 3: Apply for jobs

Apply to as many firms as you need to get the job of landing the job done.

Step 4: Acquire 4 years of work experience

Four years of work experience opens you up to the opportunity to the Principles and Practices of Engineering (PE) exam to earn your Professional Engineer licensure.

Step 5: Pass the PE exam

Passing the PE exam puts you in a strong position to field interest from firms for your experienced and knowledgeable background in mechanical engineering.

5 Steps on how to become a veterinarian

Young Female Veterinarian Checking Up The Dog at the Veterinarian Clinic

GPA Minimum 3.3
Undergrad Major Bio or general science
Years in School 8
Avg GRE Score ~150 – 152

Step 1: Complete a bachelor’s degree

Any bachelor degree is OK, so long as you take prerequisite courses (with some in advanced science courses). Make sure with your desired vet school and maintain a competitive GPA (~3.5 GPA).

Step 2: Pass the GRE

The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is a test most veterinarian schools require you to take and pass to get in. Some might require a biology GRE, while some accept MCAT. Check with your preferred vet school.

Step 3: Earn a doctor of veterinary medicine degree

This is typically a four year degree program to earn a doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) degree.

Step 4: Pass the NAVLE 

To pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE), you need to answer 55% to 65% of the 360 multiple choice questions correctly.

Step 5: Apply for jobs

Job opportunities open up after vet school: ecologist, environmental consultant, research scientist, etc. Get two years of private practice experience and you are eligible to apply for residency programs.

Step 6: Match with residency

Board certification and practice in your preferred specialty is the aim of residency.

Course Code Date & Time Location
ACAM250 001 DEC 10 2018 12:00 PM BUCH A201
AFST250A001 DEC 12 2018 08:30 AM SWNG 122
AFST351A001 DEC 18 2018 08:30 AM BUCH B213
ANTH100A003 DEC 17 2018 07:00 PM OSBO A
ANTH203 001 DEC 10 2018 08:30 AM BUCH A101
ANTH206 001 DEC 04 2018 03:30 PM BUCH A101
ANTH210 001 DEC 15 2018 08:30 AM BUCH A101

10 Best Looking Class Notes of 2018

Long gone are the days of rote memorization and humdrum note-taking. It’s 2018 – the notes you’re about to see are a vortex of knowledge, resplendence, and artistry. Don’t worry- we also listed all the best practices of strong note-taking to help you get to take beautiful, visual notes too. 

1. Charting Your Way to Success

Having symmetry, straight lines and organizational function in your notes gives way to clear uninterrupted studying.

An image of notes on Gantt Charts complete with texts, tables and diagrams

2. History Shows You’re Biologically Predisposed to As

Add a visual dimension to your notes to not only help you comprehend what you’re reading but to also serve as a cue for memory recall when you’re studying.

An image of two sheets of notes, labeled History and Biology; complete with visual aids and diagrams

3. Divorced From Failure

Segmenting the various topics in your notes gives you control over what you’re reading, so that you can focus on what matters most.

An image of notes that illustrate topics on divorce and alternative family relationships

4. Capilla-rise These Notes Up High

Adding color is a surefire way in greatly assisting your recall of the notes you write. Color is vitally important when it comes to distinguishing one thing from another, which helps you categorize information and recall them quicker.

A set of notes on the topic of biology and the subtopic of capillaries.

5. Plant Your Notes Where I can See Them

Illustrations quickly draw your attention to what matters. The differences become are more clear and more stark; giving you a better picture of how objects compare.

An image of a plant cross-section complete with notes and visual aids

6. The Rise and Decline of 4.0 GPAs

Our brains are wired towards good storytelling because it makes sense of an otherwise scattered breadth of information. Which is why combining text and images visualize information to tell a story is extremely powerful for recall.

A note sheet on the topic of civilizations with visual aids and, diagrams and texts

7. Mind Mapping Me The Path to Graduating with Honours?

Mindmaps are powerful in organizing the connecting elements radiating from a single topic. It’s an overview of information relevant to the topic making it especially memorable as the central idea never escapes you.

An image of a Mindmap of various blocks of text linked to a single text source

8. Managing Your Professor’s Adoration

Use diagrams to convey more information in less time. Visually representing information with concise texts makes your studying more efficient and less straining because it distills the information down to its most basic points.

A sheet of study notes on management and planning

9. Advanced Fung Shui Notes 

Combine all the principles of good note-taking and you have a powerful set of notes that places you in the best position to study, learn and excel. Don’t be afraid to use diagrams, visual aids, colors, and headings to your advantage to get the most out of your notes.

A sheet of note son trigonometry with diagrams, tables and functions

10. Please be Homogenerous In Sharing These Notes 

We all use shape to identify and organize visual information. Use it to form the outline of each  set of topics in your notes to categorize and command them.

Image of color coded notes on quantitative chemistry

The Stationery Used to Write Beautiful Visual Notes

    1. For pastel-colored higlighting: Mildliners.
    2. To write fine, minimalistic notes: Muji Pens
    3. For colored inks that don’t smear: Inkjoy Gel Pens. 

There are many of these graduated note-takers out there – and we’re teeming with them on OneClass. Note-taking is not a skill that is easily acquired overnight. If you need additional help with writing effective class notes, read this article: How to Take Study Notes: 5 Effective Note Taking Methods and Essential Tips

How to Cite Lecture Notes in MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard and Vancouver (2018)

The confusion over how to cite lecture notes comes from the fact that they’re not written in formal print often as, say, a book. They’re typically paraphrased also. Now you’re thinking how do I cite this?

The answer depends on one question: are the lecture notes published?

If yes: Then you need to have a reference/work cited/bibliography list.

If no: Then your lecture notes aren’t accessible to your readers. In which case, you only need to cite them in the body of your paper (in-text citations) and not in your reference/work cited/bibliography list.

Let me show you how it looks for each style format.



The MLA citation style is focused on authorship. This means your in-text citations only need to mention the author’s name.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

In-Text Citation Format

Author’s Surname

In-Text Citation Example

The disillusionment of promised economic prosperity came as quickly as it was served, as mentioned by Clark et al. in a lecture delivered in 2018 at the University of Toronto.

Published Lecture Notes (add to works cited list) 

Works Cited Format

Surname, First Name. Lecture or Presentation Title.” Other Pertinent Information. URL.  Access date is optional.

Works Cited Example

Jones, Indiana. “Performance Metrics for Remote Workers.” Working Remote Conference, 31 November 2011, Massey Hall, Toronto, ON. Lecture.



The APA style emphasizes the date on which the work appeared. Following this style means you need to add the date to your in-text citation.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

In-Text Citation Format

(Author Surname, Year)

In-Text Citation Example

The inaccuracy of the economic model presented by Dean Walker is a result of missing the signal amidst the noise, as documented by Petunia et al (2018). in a lecture delivered at Queen’s University.

Published Lecture Notes (add to reference list) 

When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title (e.g. PowerPoint slides, Word document).

Reference List Format

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Lecture
title [Format]Retrieved
from George Washington University
Course name.

Reference List Citation Example

Lee, B. Discretionary Reliance on Walking Sticks [PDF document].
Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website:


It’s common to see footnotes and end notes in the Chicago style for additional information on the source of the information. If the lecture notes you’re referring to aren’t published, you only need to do in-text citations.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

In-Text Citation Format-


In-Text Citation Example

Rose mentioned in her lecture on September 2, 2018 that the solutions submitted by the team of economists from the Economic Modeling Institute were impractical1

Published Lecture Notes (add to footnotes/endnotes + bibliography)

Footnotes Citation Format

         1. First name Last Name, “Title or Subject of the Lecture” (class lecture, Course Name, School Name, Location, Month Day, Year).

Footnotes Citation Example

         41. Jerry Markovitch, “Statistical Aberrations in PhD Dissertations
Acceptances,” (class lecture, MATH 3039, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, March 19, 2018.

*Note: If you need to add footnotes, you will need to add it to your bibliography.*

Bibliography Citation Format

         Last Name, First Name. “Title or Subject of the Lecture.” Class lecture, Course Name, School, Location, Month Day, Year.

Bibliography Citation Example

        Hanstedt, Paul. “The Indus Valley Conundrum,” Class lecture, MATH 3039, University of Toronto, Toronto ON, March 19, 2018.


An image of the text Harvard Style Guide

The Harvard style requires the surname of the author and the year to be mentioned when referencing the source information. These two points of information are often in parentheses together.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

In-Text Citation Format

(Author Surname Year)

In-Text Citation Example

Adrien and Wiley (2018) interpreted the financial models presented by the Sydney Institute of Technology as forecasting the end of sustained revenue demand in the steel industry.

*Note: if the authors’ names are used to form a part of your sentence, you do not need to include them in the parentheses.*

Published Lecture Notes

Reference Citation Format

Surname, Initial(s) Year, Title of the study guide or lecture notes, Type of Medium, School, viewed date, <Course Name>.

Reference Citation Example

Wiley, W 2018, The Sociological Imagination Re-Imagined, Lecture notes, Michigan State University, delivered 1 January 2018, <SOC100>.


Image of of the text: Vancouver Style

The Vancouver style uses number markers to indicate the when external informational sources are referenced. They can be marked with round brackets or superscripts.

Unpublished Lecture Notes

In-Text Citation Format

Content (1)

In-Text Citation Example

Yanokovitch spoke on the importance of examining the multiple cognitive approaches with the computational analysis method to identify environmental trends. (1)

Published Lecture Notes

Reference Citation Format

1. Surname Initial. Title [Format]. Course Name, School; lecture given Month Day Year.

Reference Citation Example

1. Petrovski B. Deindustrialization, Culture Wars, and Unionization [unpublished lecture notes]. HIST2100: Britain and the British Empire, University of Michigan; lecture given December 1 2018.

*Note: All your citations appearing in your reference list should be listed numerically in accordance with the sequence it appears in your paper.*

Now you know how to cite lecture notes, if you need help citing study guides, here’s how: How to Cite Study Guides in APA, MLA, Chicago, Harvard and Vancouver (2018).

OneClass Teacher of the Year Award

OneClass Teacher of the Year Award

This year, OneClass is introducing the OneClass Teacher of The Year Award to show gratitude to outstanding educators who not just teach, but work to inspire the millennial generation with their knowledge, humbleness, and professionalism.

The OneClass Teacher of the Year award has been created to acknowledge extraordinary educators on behalf of OneClass’ 2.5 million users. From now on, a single educator will be recognized each year for their contribution and influence on the OneClass student community. Nominees come from multiple institutions but share a desire to help students achieve excellence.

Candidates are nominated based on 5 categories:

1. Effective teaching practices
2. Strong sense of commitment to the profession
3. Ability to inspire students to learn
4. Encourages critical thinking and stirs curiosity
5. Enhanced classroom performance

Entry Procedures

A nomination system will be adopted for entry into the OneClass Teacher of the Year award. Each nomination should be supported by a minimum of four nominators, who may include present or former students of the nominated educator. All undergraduate teachers in North America, of any academic rank at any type of undergraduate institution, are eligible for the award.

Teacher of the Year Timeline

March 1st: Students from the respective finalists’ institutions on OneClass will be invited to vote.

March 25th: Voting period ends.

March 30th: The winner of the OneClass Teacher of the Year award will be announced.

Benefits to Your Institution

In recognizing educators who display superb teaching skills, the OneClass Teacher of the Year award focuses attention on educators who have provided outstanding contributions to students’ learning. Not only is this an achievement that bolsters the recipient’s CV, but also strengthens the community’s interest in your institution and support for your academic programs.

About OneClass

OneClass is an online learning platform where users gain from accessing its library of educational content intended to help them achieve academic excellence.